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سنجش و کنترل ولتاژ پایین در شبکه توزیع برق اعمال می شود ( Low Voltage Sensing and Control Applied to the Electrical Distribution Grid)

گرد آورنده :
حسین داداشی
ارسال شده در تاریخ: 1401/02/15

Abstract
The overhead distribution transformer is one of the most important and expensive equipment in the distribution grid. Without the proper monitoring of its performance, it can become very difficult to detect possible failures or adverse situations of equipment operation. This article describes a system designed for real-time monitoring and protection of transformers in overhead distribution lines via motorized circuit breakers, installed on the low voltage side. The remote control of the circuit breaker and the calculations of the hot spot temperature and the load of the transformer on the low voltage side will be performed by edge computing. The proposed solution aims to provide protection in the low voltage of the distribution grid and provides more information about the main asset of the utility in the distribution grid. The study is part of an innovation project by Enel Distribuição São Paulo, called “Urban Futurability”. This project is located in an area with a diversity of grid types, from underground grids with high load density to overhead grids of medium load density. The application of the proposed solution in this article will be carried out in part of the overhead grid of the project region, in the city of São Paulo, Brazil.
Introduction
The distribution transformer is the equipment responsible for adjusting the voltage levels for the final consumers. The use of this equipment outside the rated operating conditions – temperature, current or voltage – causes the equipment to accelerate aging or even failures. As a result, it is necessary to carry out costly maintenance and, consequently, impacting the continuity indicators [1], [2], [3], [4]. In Brazil, most of the electricity distribution grid is overhead [5]. This causes the distribution grid in Brazil to be constantly vulnerable to the action of external agents that can cause the interruption of the energy supply [6], [1]. As the cost for building an underground distribution grid is much higher when compared to that of the overhead grid [7], one of the ways to increase the reliability of the distribution grid is by improving the protection system.The need to improve the quality of the electricity supply and have a robust and reliable system are major challenges for utilities [6], [4], [8], [9], [10]. One way to achieve this goal is through a fast, reliable and cost-effective protection system [4]. Historically, the protection system has been prioritized in the most critical areas, starting with subtransmission, substation and medium voltage distribution

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